samskivert: Euler 61

27 July 2010

Problem 061:

object Euler61 extends EulerApp {
  case class Pn (card :Int, value :Int) {
    def valid = (value < 10000) && (value > 999)
    def ab = value / 100
    def cd = value % 100
  }

  def tri (n :Int) = Pn(3, n*(n+1)/2)
  def square (n :Int) = Pn(4, n*n)
  def pent (n :Int) = Pn(5, n*(3*n-1)/2)
  def hex (n :Int) = Pn(6, n*(2*n-1))
  def hept (n :Int) = Pn(7, n*(5*n-3)/2)
  def oct (n :Int) = Pn(8, n*(3*n-2))
  def gen (max :Int)(gen :(Int) => Pn) = (1 to max) map(gen) filter(_.valid)
  val nums = List(square _, pent _, hex _, hept _, oct _) flatMap(gen(100))

  def search (nums :Seq[Pn], set :List[Pn]) :Option[List[Pn]] = {
    if (!nums.isEmpty) (for (n <- nums; if (n.ab == set.last.cd);
                             s <- search(nums filter(_.card != n.card), set :+ n))
                        yield s) headOption
    else if (set.last.cd == set.head.ab) Some(set)
    else None
  }
  def sets = for (n <- gen(150)(tri); s <- search(nums, n::Nil)) yield s
  def answer = (sets head) map(_.value) sum
}

I model a polygonal number with a case class to track it's value and cardinality. Since I care about four-digitality and two digit prefixes and suffixes, those fit nicely as methods on the class. The main search proceeds by starting with a given triangle number (since all sets must have one triangular element), and then looks for a number that matches the suffix of said number. If one is found, it is added to the ordered set, all other numbers with the same cardinality are dropped from the candidates list, and a new number is sought that matches the suffix of the value just added.

If we match a number for each cardinality, then we'll finally end up in the search procedure with an empty candidates list, in which case we check whether the last number in the ordered set matches the first.

Functional programming comment: when I first wrote this, I was using Nil to indicate a non-match, and had a few find(Nil.!=) calls sprinkled around to find matching elements. That smelled suspiciously like using null, so I decided to be a good functional programmer and use Option. However, this left me in situations where I'd have a List[Option[Pn]] and I'd need the first non-None element. I know that I can take such a list and do list flatMap(x => x) head but that seems insufficiently scrutable to people not familiar with the idiom.

This motivated me to switch to for-comprehensions. Instead of writing:

nums filter(_.ab == set.last.cd) map(n => search(...)) flatMap(s => s) headOption

I use what you see above:

(for (n <- nums; if (n.ab == set.last.cd); s <- search(...)) yield s) headOption

The for-comprehension turns out to be a little shorter, a lot easier to line-wrap (if needed), and I think probably slightly more comprehensible. You still have to deduce that Option behaves like a zero-or-one element list when used in a for-comprehension, but that seems more intuitive than figuring out that List(Some(1), None, Some(2)) flatMap(x => x) gives you List(1, 2).

©1999–2015 Michael Bayne